Platinum – Periodic Table
Chemistry for Kids: Elements - Platinum. Platinum is a chemical element in the periodic table of elements. It has 78 protons and 78 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Platinum is Pt.
Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number It is a densemalleable, ductilehighly unreactive, precioussilverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platinomeaning "little silver". Platinum is a member of the what is platinum on the periodic table group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements.
It has six naturally occurring isotopes. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.
Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosioneven at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.
It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it began to be investigated by scientists. Platinum is used in catalytic converterslaboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodesplatinum resistance thermometersdentistry equipment, and jewelry.
Being a heavy metalit leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts what is platinum on the periodic table but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.
Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductileand malleablesilver-white metal. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acidbut dissolves in hot aqua regia a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acidsto form chloroplatinic acidH 2 PtCl 6.
Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum II compounds tend to adopt electron square planar geometries. Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid H 2 PtCl 6 : .
As a soft acidplatinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO ; numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care what is platinum on the periodic table be taken in the choice of reaction solvent.
InGerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum catalytic converter. The most abundant of these is Pt, comprising It is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin.
Due to its spin and large abundance, Pt satellite peaks are also often observed in 1 H and 31 P NMR spectroscopy e. Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6. Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from tomaking the total number of known isotopes Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay.
Platinum is an extremely rare metal,  occurring at a concentration of only 0. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly. Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits.
Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains how to program bose 321 remote, Russia, and it is still mined.
In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides e. Pt,Pd Stellurides e. PtBiTeantimonides PdSband arsenides e. PtAs 2and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite PtAs 2is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in OntarioCanada. At Platinum, Alaskaabout 17, kgozt was mined between and The mine ceased operations in Inchromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.
Smaller reserves can be found in the United States,  for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil NaduIndia. Platinum exists in how to clean cat urine smell out of hardwood floors abundances on the Moon and in meteorites.
Correspondingly, platinum is found in how to write a character reference for court uk template higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example. Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum what is platinum on the periodic table, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.
By itself, it has various how to put on bare minerals makeup in photography, zinc etchings, indelible inkplating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.
Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloridegives ammonium hexachloroplatinate which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.
When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: . All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen. Platinum IV oxidePtO 2also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.
Unlike palladium acetateplatinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate. Zeise's saltcontaining an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered.
Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatinor cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs. These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNAand kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.
Organoplatinum compounds such as the above antitumour agents, as well as soluble inorganic platinum complexes, are routinely characterised using Pt nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics. It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold.
The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC — ADbut precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.
The resulting gold—platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum what is balsa wood made out of. Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and what is platinum on the periodic table them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.
Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report inUlloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. Inhe was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. InCharles Wood,  a British metallurgistfound various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.
Inafter studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Societystating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.
InHenrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic. Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regiaprecipitating the platinum with ammonium chlorideigniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.
Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic. Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the listScheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.
Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridiumamongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy. Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.
Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.
Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metalsis obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.
During electrorefining what is platinum on the periodic table coppernoble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.
If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.
Platinum is paramagneticwhereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture. Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the what is platinum on the periodic table.
Platinum is a very different substance to a chemist. Platinum metal is silvery white and does not oxidise, properties that make it highly appealing for jewellery. It is more precious than silver but with prices more volatile than gold. Nov 16, · Platinum is a ductile and malleable silvery-white metal. It does not oxidize in air at any temperature, although it is corroded by cyanides, halogens, sulfur, and caustic alkalis. Platinum does not dissolve in hydrochloric or nitric acid but will dissolve when the two acids are mixed to form aqua regia. Platinum is the third element of the tenth column in the periodic table. It is classified as a transition metal. Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and 78 protons with neutrons in the most abundant isotope. It is considered to be a precious metal along with silver and gold. Characteristics and Properties.
Platinum is a precious and strong metal and has been known since ancient times. It was formally discovered in in South America.
Platinum is an ancient metal, as in around BC, it was identified as a contamination in gold in ancient Egypt. The traces of platinum have been found in pre-Columbia American civilizations, where it was used in making artifacts of white gold. Later, Antonio de Ulloa and Don Jorge Juan found raw platinum from mines and studied its chemical and physical properties in and identified it as a distinct metal . The name platinum has been derived from the word platino , which is the Spanish word for little silver .
Platinum is a rare transition metal. It is present in a concentration of as low as around 0. Platinum is mostly present in its native form and as alloy with iron.
It is primarily prevalent in the alluvial deposit layer along with sand and clay particles. Various ores, including copper and nickel deposits contain platinum in combination with sulfide, arsenide and antimonides.
The most common ore of platinum is sperrylite PtAs 2. Platinum is a silvery white, beautiful metal. It is ductile, lustrous and malleable and is considered the most ductile metal . It is very resistant to corrosion. Platinum is a fair conductor of electricity. Platinum is not tarnished in the presence of air or heat.
It does not react with acids but is readily dissolved in aqua regia mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. The atomic number of platinum is 78 and its atomic mass is Platinum is a chemically stable element as it is one of the least reactive metals Nobel metal.
Platinum readily reacts with carbon. Certain non-metals, including phosphorus, silicon and sulfur also combine with platinum. Platinum is readily attacked by peroxides and fluorine at high temperatures. Platinum is non-toxic, but certain salts of platinum are considerably dangerous and carcinogenic. Platinum toxicity is primarily an occupational hazard, as it is emitted from cars and vehicles with leaded gasoline.
And personals working at garages and terrains of automobile companies are considered be at risk of platinum toxicity. The exposed individual can experience irritation of throat, eyes and nose and continuous exposure can develop skin allergies and respiratory trouble.
Platinum has 35 isotopes. There are six isotopes in naturally occurring platinum: platinum, platinum, platinum, platinum, platinum and platinum The most abundant and the only stable isotope is platinum Weeks, M. Discovery of the Elements 7th ed. Journal of Chemical Education. ISBN OCLC Harper, Douglas. Online Etymology Dictionary. Loferski, P. July Archived PDF from the original on 7 July Retrieved 17 July Lagowski, J. Chemistry Foundations and Applications. Thomson Gale.
Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 21 November History and Discovery Platinum is an ancient metal, as in around BC, it was identified as a contamination in gold in ancient Egypt. Physical Characteristics Platinum is a silvery white, beautiful metal. Chemical Characteristics Platinum is a chemically stable element as it is one of the least reactive metals Nobel metal. Significance and Uses Platinum is widely used as a catalyst in exhaust system of internal combustion engine where it is part of the catalytic converter.
Platinum is used in making ornaments, artifacts and jewellery. Platinum is used in making dental alloys and implants. Various surgical tools, and laboratory utensils are made of platinum. Platinum is used in making electrical contact points and resistance wires. Platinum is used in aircraft and sport car industries.
Platinum is used in making liquid glass display in laptops Platinum is used to make optical fibers. Health Hazards Platinum is non-toxic, but certain salts of platinum are considerably dangerous and carcinogenic.
Isotopes of Platinum Platinum has 35 isotopes. Retrieved 17 July . It is the densest…. Iridium Iridium belongs to the platinum group of metals and is highly dense and resistant to…. Rhodium Rhodium was discovered in and is member of the platinum group. It is widely….